RWC: MLA Reference: Electronic Sources

MLA Citations:
Electronic Sources


   A CD-ROM or Computer Program
   A Music Album
   "Untitled" Classical Compositions
   A Specific Song
   A Music Video
   A Film or Video Recording
   A Television or Radio Program
   A Television or Radio Advertisement
   A Performance 


    A CD-ROM or Computer Program:     

Last Name, First Name.  Title of Program. City of Publisher: Publisher, Year. CD-ROM. 

Last Name, First Name.  Title of Program. Editor (if applicable). Version (if applicable). City of       Publisher: Publisher, Year. CD-ROM.

Maurer, Jay.  Focus on Grammar: Advanced Level. White Plains, NY: Addison, 1995.

Maurer, Jay.  "Unit 4: Future Progressive."  Focus on Grammar: Advanced Level. White
       Plains, NY: Addison, 1995. CD-ROM.

    A Music Album:     

Name of Group or Last Name, First Name of Composer/Conductor. Title of Album. Performing Artist. Manufacturer, Date. Medium.

Coldplay. Viva la Vida. Capitol, 2008. CD.

Handel, George Frideric. Concerti grossi, op. 6 nos 5-8.  Perf. Anthony Pleeth, English
       Consort, Trevor Pinnock, and Simon Standage. Cond. Elizabeth Wilcock.
       Polygram, 1990. CD. 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Essential Mozart. Perf. Fritz Dolezal et al. Cond. Christoph von
      Dohnanyi et al. Decca, 2001. CD. 

Gibb, Barry, Robin Gibb, and Maurice Gibb, writ. Saturday Night Fever. RFO, 1977. LP.

The Who. Who Are You? MCA, 1978. Audiocassette.

    "Untitled" Classical Compositions:      

Name of Group or Last Name, First Name of Composer/Conductor.  Form, Number, Key.  Perf. Name.  Orch. Name.  Cond. Name.  Manufacturer, Date. Medium. 

Rachmaninov, Sergey, comp.  Piano concertos nos. 2 & 3.  Perf. Arthur Loesser and
      Byron Janis.  London Symphony Orchestra and Minnesota Orchestra.  Cond. Antal
      Dorati.  Philips, 1991. CD. 

Berliner Philharmoniker.  Symphonies nos. 4 & 7.  By Ludwig van Beethoven.  Cond.
      Herbert von Karajan.  Deutsche Grammophon, 1993. CD. 

    A Specific Song:     

Name of Group or Last Name, First Name of Composer/Conductor.  "Title of Song." 
      Performing Artist. Title of Album. Manufacturer, Date. Medium.

Name of Group or Last Name, First Name of Composer/Conductor. Form, Number,
      Key.  Perf. Name.  Orch. Name.  Cond. Name.  Title of Album. Manufacturer, Date.                 Medium.   

Biondi, Fabio, cond.  Sinfonia in C major. Perf. Europa Galante.  By Alessandro Scarlatti
      and Domenico Scarlatti.  Scarlatti Concerti & Sinfonie.  EMI, 2002. CD.

Pachelbel, Johann.  Canon in D. Perf. Leos Janacek.  The Most Relaxing Classical Music
      in the Universe
. Denon, 2003. CD.

Bono, writ. "With or Without You." Perf. U2. The Joshua Tree. Island, 1987. CD.

Foreigner. "Urgent." By Mick Jones. 4. Atlantic, 1981. Audiocassette.

Black Eyed Peas. "Bebot." By Allen Pineda. Monkey Business. A&M, 2005. CD.

A Music Video:

Last Name, First Name of Artist.  "Title of Song."  Title of Album.  Manufacturer, Year. 
      Music Video. Dir. First Name Last Name. Channel. Date Viewed. Medium.

Brown, Chris.  "With You."  Exclusive. Zomba, 2007. Music Video. Dir. Erik White & Chris               Brown. MTV. 3 Dec. 2007. Television.

Elliot, Missy.  "Lose Control." The Cookbook. Goldmind, 2005. Music Video. Dir. Dave
      Meyers & Missy Elliott. MTV. 31 July 2005. Television.

A Film or Video Recording:

If you wish to highlight a certain individual, you may start the entry with his or her name instead of the title.  "Notable information" can include the writer, actors, producers, or others who may be important to the theme of your paper.  Also note if you are citing the DVD or VHS version.

Title. Dir. First Name Last Name. Notable information.  Distributor, Year. Medium.

Last Name, First Name.  Title. Dir. First Name Last Name. Perf. First Name Last Name. 
      Prod. First Name Last Name. Distributor, Year. Medium.

Forrest Gump. Dir. Robert Zemekis. Perf. Tom Hanks, Robin Wright Penn, Gary
      Sinise.  Paramount, 1994. Videocassette.

Ledger, Heath, perf.  The Dark Knight.  Dir. Christopher Nolan. Warner Bros., 2008. DVD.

A Walk to Remember. By Nicholas Sparks. Dir. Adam Shankman. DVD. Warner Bros.,
      2002. DVD.

Ghost. Dir. Jerry Zucker. Perf. Patrick Swazye, Demi Moore, and Whoopi Goldberg.
      VHS. Paramount, 1990. Videocassette.

A Television or Radio Program:

Most television shows will be listed by episode and program.  Other shows may not run as part of a continuous plotline, but rather be unique shows under a common series title. Rarely, if ever, will a citation include the title of the episode, program, and series all at once. It will usually be the first two or the last two.

"Title of Episode." Title of Program. Title of Series. Network. Call letters, City. Date         Broadcasted. Medium of Reception.

"Business Ethics." The Office. NBC. 27 Sept. 2007. Television.

Bathroom Tech. Modern Marvels. History. 21 Apr. 2004. Television.

"Second Chances." Summer Stories: The Mall. Afterschool Specials. ABC. 2 Apr. 1992.                   Television.

"Phase 10." Charlene's Super Spectacular Show. With David Martin and Jeff Powell.
      Dir. Kalle Speer. WKHS, Leighton. 10 July 2007. Radio.

A Television or Radio Advertisement:

Name of Product/Company. Advertisement. Network. Call letters, City. Date Broadcasted.        Medium of Reception.

TheCAB. Advertisement. NBC. KHNL, Honolulu. 16 Aug. 2008. Television.

Geico. Advertisement. CBS. 16 Aug. 2008. Television.

A Performance:

Sources cited as performances are those seen or listened to in person rather than through some type of media.  However, they include much of the same information that media citations would include.  For example, the people listed as "notable contributors" are similar to those you would list as notable contributors for sources such as musical compositions or movies. "Type of Performance" is also optional information that you may wish to include.  Also, as with movies and music, if you wish to highlight the work of a particular performer, they may be listed at the beginning of the entry. 

Title of Performance. Type of Performance
      (Concert, Opera, Play, Performance, etc.). Notable Contributors. Venue, City. Date.

Last Name, First Name of Performer, role. Title of Performance. Type of Performance
       (Concert, Opera, Play, Performance, etc.)Notable Contributors. Venue, City. Date.

Seven Brides for Seven Brothers.  Dir. Michael Belnap and Craig Ferre. Perf. Joseph Moore
       and Janelle Cramer. McKay Auditorium, Laie. 22 Feb. 2008. Performance.

Buck, Mike, perf. Joyful Noise. By Tim Slover. Dir. Craig Ferre. McKay Auditorium, Laie.                  5 Sept. 2008. Performance.

Steinhilber, Kristine, viola.  Concert. BYU Hawaii String Ensemble. Dir. Daniel
      Bradshaw.  McKay Auditorium, Laie.  22 Mar. 2008. Performance.