RWC: APA Reference: Electronic Media

APA Citations: Electronic Media



   An Abstract
   A Database
   A Data File
   A Journal Article
   A Newsletter Article
   A Non-Periodical Document
   An Online Forum or Discussion Group
   A Technical or Research Report


   1. Author's Name
   2. Date of Publication
   3. Title of the Publication or Periodical
   4. Series Number or Name
   5. Volume Number (for a scholarly journal)
   6. Issue Number
   7. Page Numbers


*All cases and examples are taken from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition.*

    An Abstract:

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Title of abstract (Title of Report). Abstract retrieved
      Month, Day, Year, from Web Address

Kruschke, J. K., & Bradley, A. L. (1995). Extensions to the delta rule of associative learning
      (Indiana University Cognitive Science Research Report No. 14). Abstract retrieved
      October 21, 2000, from

    An Article or Abstract from a Database:

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month, Day). Title of article.  Title of Magazine, Issue
      Number, page numbers(s).

Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down
      scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.

    A Data File:

From a Government Agency

National Health Interview Survey -- Current health topics: 1991 -- Longitudinal study of aging
      (Version 4) [Data File]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

From NTIS Web Site

Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics.
      (1991). National Health Provider Inventory: Home health agencies and hospices, 1991
[Data file]. Available from National Technical Information Service Web site,

    A Journal Article:

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Title of article [Electronic Version]. Title of Journal, volume, page number(s). 

Based on a Print Source

VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the
      selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of
      Bibliographic Research, 5,

An Internet-only Journal

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health
      and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20,
      2000, from

    A Newsletter Article:

Last name, First name. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of Publication, Volume(Issue).
      Retrieved Month Day, Year, from web address

Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxer, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M., et al.
      (1998, July). Video counseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy -- Project
      update. Telehealth News, 2(2). Retrieved June 6, 2000, from

    A Non-Periodical Document:

Created by a Private Organization

Greater New Milford (Ct) Are Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and
      Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October
      5, 2000, from

Available on University Program or Department Website

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New
      wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures.
Retrieved August
      24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site:

    An Online Forum or Discussion Group:

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Title of post [Message number]. Message posted to
      web address.

Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources for visual cognition [Msg 31]. Message
      posted to 

    A Technical or Research Report:

        U.S. Government report Available on Government Agency Web Site

United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.). 1997 sourcebook of federal sentencing
. Retrieved December 8, 1999, from